When an Editor Matters

a guest post by Rich Adin, a professional editor

It isn’t too 0307271609.01._PC_SCLZZZZZZZ_[1]often that the worth of a good editor is hinted at by a reviewer, but when it happens, it stands out.

In “The Surprising Empress” (The New York Review of Books, December 5, 2013, pp. 18-20), Jonathan Mirsky reviewed Empress Dowager Cixi: The Concubine Who Launched Modern China by Jung Chang. I have always been fascinated by Chinese history, so the article caught my attention (I subscribe to the print edition of the NYRB and read the articles in print, not online). This looked like a book I would add to my future list of books to buy in hardcover, until…

Yes, the until raises its “ugly head” in this quote from the article (p. 20):

I have one small and two serious criticisms of Chang’s usually impressive biography. She occasionally lapses into slang or uses the wrong word. A woman “sashays” into a room, British merchants “showcase” a railway, a “roller-coaster of events” is said to have disturbed the emperor, and a concubine is described as a former “high-class call-girl.” “Winsome” is only one of the words misused.

Mirsky goes on to write:

More serious is the matter of sources.…Chang has drawn on the “colossal documentary pool” of twelve million documents in the First Historical Archives of China, which have to do with the reign of Cixi.

It would be useful to say something about these documents and how they are organized,…[R]eaders would like to know why she has chosen this or that source. I liked this biography, but have been troubled as a reviewer because the sources are not easy to check.

What Mirsky complains about are editorial failings. The publisher, Knopf, may or may not have hired a professional editor. Based on the first complaint of wrong words and slang, I wonder if Knopf did hire a professional editor familiar with American language usage (the market/target audience, at least for the reviewed version, is Americans) to copyedit the book. The second complaint, about the sources, makes me wonder if the book had undergone any professional developmental editing.

Or did Knopf take the easy path and simply hire the least-expensive editor it could find and let the author do as she pleased?

Basically, the review, which was written by Jonathan Mirsky, a well-known historian of China who was formerly the East Asia Editor of The Times of London, is complimentary because the book corrects 100 years of misinformation about Cixi’s reign. But for me, who is not a well-versed historian of China and who cannot read between the lines to determine that Chang’s book is a respectable addition to the repertoire, Mirsky damns the book by his quoted comments. I see, instead of a great addition to the history of China literature, a book that is questionable.

It is questionable not only because of the use of slang and wrong/inappropriate word choices, but because the sources are not verifiable or accessible. The message I receive is that neither the publisher Knopf nor the author Chang cared enough about either the book or the reader to ensure accuracy and provability. When I edit a book and see sources that cannot be accessed or identified as dominating the references, I tell the author that it reflects badly on the substance of the material. As a reader, how can I be certain that the same indifference was not given to the text?

In Chang’s case, the problem goes a bit deeper. When I am editing a book, I at least know it is being professionally edited. Granted, a consumer wouldn’t know, and if the author doesn’t follow my advice and correct the references or change incorrect word choices, the book would appear to the consumer as Chang’s book appears to me — unedited.

Editors do matter. The choice of editor does matter. The type of editing does matter. A good working relationship between author and editor does matter. And it is vitally important that an author not believe that each word he or she has written is sacrosanct and cannot be changed for the better. I’m sorry to say that in my career I have encountered several authors who wrongly believed that what they had written was already perfect and that my role as editor was simply to make sure there were no typographical errors.

There is a dual failure in Chang’s book. The first failure is that of the publisher. The publisher clearly should have had Chang’s book developmentally edited by a professional editor who has mastery over American language and usage. I would like to think that the sources problem would not have passed by such an editor. The publisher should have followed up the developmental editing with copyediting, again done by a professional editor with mastery of American language and usage. Many of the wrong word choice and slang problems might (would) have been avoided.

The second failure in Chang’s book is that, if the book was professionally developmental edited and copyedited, either the publisher did not insist on Chang following, or at least seriously considering, the suggestions of the editors (again, assuming there were editors involved) and offering justification for not following the suggestions, or Chang failed to seriously consider the suggestions on her own. It is not for the editors to be the experts on China history or the reign of Cixi, but it is for the editors to be the experts on word choice and source accessibility. (Again, all this rests on the assumption that whatever editing there was, was done by professional editors with mastery of American language usage.)

As I have written above, it is questionable whether the book was edited. But assuming it was edited, there is one other matter that could be problematic: What were the instructions to the editor?

Several factors actively impede a high-quality edit. These factors include schedule, author cooperativeness, publisher and author instructions that define the task for the editor to perform, and fee. We have discussed these many times, and the limitations each of these factors imposes do not change. It is difficult to obtain a high-quality edit when you pay a pauper wage and demand an unrealistic turnaround. (I recently was asked to edit a book on a schedule that would have required editing 116 manuscript pages each day. The material was very complex and a realistic schedule would have been 25 to 30 pages a day at most. I declined, but I do know that an editor who agreed to the schedule was hired — and was being paid less than I had been offered, which was not a celebratory amount.)

Which of these factors was present in Chang’s case, I do not know. I suspect, based on the reviewer’s comments, that several were present. Because I know that quality editing by a professional editor is important, perhaps more so in a book like Chang’s than in some other books, the reviewer’s comments are the red flags that tell me “do not buy this book” — and so I won’t.

Editors do matter and the right editor for the right job matters greatly.

reposted with permission from An American Editor


  1. KarlB25 November, 2013

    >> Yes, the until raises its “ugly head” in this quote …

    The word “until” is one that you’re quoting from the previous sentence, rather than using in its straightforward sense. And “raises its ugly head” is a common idiom, so there’s no reason to put quotes around the “ugly head” piece of it. So this should have been:

    Yes, the “until” raises its ugly head in this quote …


    >> But for me, who is not a well-versed historian …

    This sounds really awkward. Much better would be

    For myself, not being a well-versed historian …


    >> … who cannot read between the lines to determine that Chang’s book is a respectable addition to the repertoire …

    You’re misusing the expression “read between the lines,” which means to find a disguised or subtle subtext in a piece of writing. What you mean is simply having enough prior knowledge to decide if the book is valid and accurate. Also “to its field” would be better than “to the repertoire.”


    >> if the book was professionally developmental edited and copyedited …

    “developmental edited” doesn’t make any sense until you realized that the words are linked, with “developmental” modifying “edited.” Since “professionally developmentally edited” would sound awkward, the better way to do this would be with a hyphen:

    if the book was professionally developmental-edited and copyedited …


    So yeah; I think you’ve proved your point. Editing is important.

    1. David Haywood Young25 November, 2013

      Puppy-kicker. But okay, I can play this game too. And I think there are larger sins here.

      Where’s the logic in “Because I know that quality editing by a professional editor is important, perhaps more so in a book like Chang’s than in some other books, the reviewer’s comments are the red flags that tell me ‘do not buy this book’ — and so I won’t”?

      Rephrased, that’s: “Because I know (a priori) that editors are important, I was able to recognize this book might have flaws because of a reviewer’s comments.” Huh? Non sequitur much? Aside from the silly sentence itself, I question whether the existence of flaws in a book necessarily means editors are important–as opposed to editing. By which I mean quality is more important than a sales pitch that promises to deliver it.

      Frankly the whole piece struck me as awkward and weirdly phrased. But hey, it’s free advertising for the guy (or…that’s an assumption on my part; maybe he was even paid). And folks do like to make a living. Me too, come to think of it.

      Okay, back to my cave. {8′>

  2. Will O'Neil25 November, 2013

    My experience with professional editors has been very mixed. I’ve had to wrestle with editors who tried to insist that I change a statement that was correct to one that was wrong, simply because they lacked the background to understand things that the intended audience and I both knew and failed to study the references thoroughly. But on the whole I would much rather have a good editor than not.

    As a matter of economic reality, however, for many authors the question is whether to publish without editing or not to publish at all. Nevertheless, this piece can provide some helpful ideas for authors who are forced to edit their own work. Many of the greatest books ever written, after all, were published before the emergence of the professional editor. It really is possible to edit your own work well, but it takes a good deal of time and effort.

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