Last week the Boston Public library tweeted a 14-second clip of their book cleaning machine in operation.
A bunch of sites shared that clip, but it doesn't show nearly enough detail to satisfy me so instead I went and found a 5-minute video showing the same model book-cleaning machine in use.
Note the commercial shop vac:
The device in the video is a Depulveda. It is one of several book cleaning machines made by Oracle, an Italian company.
This is their biggest model, and they all essentially work the same; brushes knock the dust off of a book while fans suck it away.
Curiously enough, none of the machines have UV lights, which I found strange. One would think they would want to kill any mold or bacteria living on the books; perhaps the UV would damage the paper?
In any case, Library Journal has an article on book cleaning machines, if you are interested.